يوجد فقط 14 صفحة متاحة للعرض العام
Italy and Libya occupy a central place in the Mediterranean Sea which led to the close relationship between the two countries through different eras. This relationship is manifested in various forms: economic, cultural and colonial. In the modern era, Italy found itself the last European countries that entered the domain of colonialism strongly, and found that Libya is the latest Ottoman states in North Africa, so it prepared huge army and ordered the Ottoman government to withdraw its garrisons from Libya. But it faced a strong resistance in addition to several fierce battles occurred along the Libyan coast where the Libyans and Ottoman soldiers showed their bravery despite the lack of munitions.
Thus, the Italian government began following a new policy to eliminate this resistance force with a series of policies which differed depending on the stages of resistance. This is what will be shown in the pages of this research, Allah willing.
The topic of this study is an important one as it shows the fierce attack from which the Libyan people suffer during their struggle. This attack has several forms, manifesting in sending in exile, arrest and starvation to force them to surrender. It also shows the resilience of the resistance force that stood in the face of this strong oppressive colonist for more than twenty years, with limited potentials.
I divide this research into an introduction, a preface, five chapters and a conclusion.
In the preface, I will discuss primary policy followed by Italy before the occupation of Libya, as well as its policy during the first year of occupation to force the Ottoman Empire to withdraw from Libya.
In chapter one, I will handle how Italy entered into negotiations with Prince Idris Al-Sanusi to give him an Emirate in the city of Ajdabiya, in addition to a series of negotiations started from the year 1916 until the year 1921. Also, I will present the negotiations held by Italy with Omar Mukhtar, the leader of the resistance in the green mountain, and how Italy didn’t enforce these agreed conventions as it considered them a way to gain more time.
In chapter two, I will focus on the most serious policies followed by Italy to suppress the movement of Omar Mukhtar, it was the policy of strangling and blockading of the Mujahideen. This policy began by closing religious small mosques (Zawyia) as it was a place for spiritual support of the resistance force and a source for funding the mujahideen, as well as arresting the population of Cyrenaica and putting them in collective prisons in the central area desert of Libya to deprive Mujahideen from internal support. Concerning the two other points, I will discuss the closure of the borders with Egypt, by extending the barbed wires and the occupation of Kufra in the south of Libya to stop any supply from abroad.
In chapter three, I will show the policy of exile to Italian islands prisons while clarifying its causes, development, and the most important islands of exile, as well as the general conditions, the health status of those exile people, and ways of moving them into exile.
In chapter four, I will present the results of the Italian policy and its effect on the Libyan society after the end of resistance, such that the education sector had been affected by the curriculum prepared by the Italian authorities and schools prevailing in the country, as well as the Libyan society had been affected by the Italian culture, especially after the arrival of more than twenty million Italian persons to Libya as settlers, and the migration of Libyans to neighbor countries during the years of war. This led to a noticeable change in the social fabric of Libyan society. Also, in this chapter, I will discuss the settlement process conducted by the Italian government in Libya and its effect on the local economy, and the introduction of Italian industries to Libya and its effect on local industries.
In chapter five, the last one, I will track how resistance force moved to outside the country, but in a political context focusing on fighting Italy by political associations, seminars and international conferences. This policy had been led by many Libyan leaders who have migrated to neighbor countries such as Egypt, Tunisia and Sham countries.