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People all over the world pay great attention to prevent liver disease and avoid its complications. It is known that following a balanced diet can play an effective role in preventing these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent of camel milk’s contribution to protect the liver. Camel milk and some camel milk products (treatments) such as a probiotic product (which is fermented camel milk), a prebiotic product (which is the aqueous extract of dandelion leaves) and a synbiotic product (fermented camel milk supported with the aqueous extract of dandelion leaves), some camel milk derivatives such as whey protein and camel casein were used within the action plan to find out their effect on liver damage injected by carbon tetrachloride in experimental rats.
This was done through:
1. Separating of milk proteins (casein and whey proteins) from camel milk.
2. Preparation of the probiotic product (camel milk was fermented using the ABT1 starter).
3. Preparing the prebiotic product (the aqueous extract of dandelion leaves).
4. Preparing the synbiotic product (Probiotic + Prebiotic).
5. The sensory evaluation of the synbiotic product prepared.
6. Physiochemical analyzes of camel milk, probiotic product, prebiotic product, and synbiotic product.
7. Conducting a biological evaluation of these products, sixty four experimental rats were divided equally into eight groups (eight rats each) in a feeding experiment for 45 days. During this period, changes in rat weight were followed up every 7 days.
8. The first group was a negative control group (NC) fed on basal diets. The other seven groups were injected at the beginning of the experiment under the peritoneal membrane with one dose of Carbon tetrachloride CCL4 (2 ml / kg of body weight through a mixture of 1: 1 carbon tetrachloride / paraffin), which led to Increasing the level of liver enzymes in the blood.
9. group 2, liver injury group (IC) was fed on a basal diets. Rats in group’s 3 to 7 were fed orally on camel milk, a probiotic product, a prebiotic product, synbiotic product, and whey of camel milk, respectively for 45 days. While, group eight received basal diets in which protein was replaced with 20% camel casein for 45 days.
10. Blood samples were taken at the end of the experiment to determine the liver enzymes in the blood (AST; ALT; ALKP & albumin), which indicated the activity of liver function. Also, parameters related to oxidative stress like (MDA and GSH) was determined.
11. The rats were dissected and liver samples were taken to prepare histological slides.
Includes (production and evaluation of camel milk products)
The results obtained were summarized as follows:
1. The percentage of casein produced with enzymatic rennet and stored for 45 days at -20°C was 65 % DM
2. Physiochemical analyzes of camel milk, probiotic and synbiotic products showed higher values (p< 0.05) of total solids, protein and fat in probiotic and synbiotic products compared to camel milk ,Lactose and pH higher values (p< 0.05) in camel milk compared to probiotic and synbiotic products. Total acidity values were higher (p< 0.05) in probiotic and synbiotic products compared to that in camel milk.
3. The results also showed higher contents (p< 0.05) of calcium, magnesium and zinc in the synbiotic product, compared to those in other products while higher contents of sodium, potassium phosphorus and iron were recorded in the prebiotic product (dandelion extract) compared to other product (p< 0.05).
4. The results also showed a high content in total carbohydrates (19.3 %), protein (8.1%) and fat (1.52%), of the prebiotic product (dandelion extract) in addition to its high antioxidant content such as total phenolic (1.97%).
5. The results recorded higher scavenging activity values (antioxidant activity) in the prebiotic product (83.47%), followed by the probiotic product (75.97%), the whey protein (71.07%), the synbiotic product (67.43%), camel milk (64.43%), and camel casein (45.60%).
6. The results showed a gradual increase in the culture viable count of probiotic bacteria remaining alive till the 7th day of storage period and then decreased gradually until the 21thday of storage period.
7. Both probiotic and synbiotic products showed a slight increase in apparent viscosity values during and till the 21th day of storage period, while the synbiotic product showed a remarkable increase (p< 0.05) in apparent viscosity values compared to those in the probiotic product.
8. The pH values were higher in the synbiotic product compared to those in the probiotic product during the 0, 7, 14, and 21th day of storage period (p< 0.05), both products showed a slight decrease with advancing the storage period in pH values.
9. The values of water holding capacity (WHC) were higher in the synbiotic product compared to those in the probiotic product during the 0, 7, 14, and 21th day of storage period (p< 0.05), both products showed a slight decrease with advancing the storage period in WHC values.
Investigate the hepatoprotective role of camel milk and its products against CCl4 induced liver injury in rats.
The effect of feeding the experimental rats with liver injury by carbon tetrachloride on camel milk, probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic products, camel whey proteins and camel casein was studied.
The results obtained were summarized as follows:
1. The control group 2 with liver injury (IC), rats showed higher values (p< 0.05) of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALKP) and MDA level, while the body weight ratio, albumin levels and GSH levels showed lower values (p< 0.05) compared to the control group1 (NC).
2. Analysis of blood serum showed significant changes (p< 0.05) in the level of liver enzymes (AST), (ALT), and (ALKP) in groups from 3 to 8 compared to the group 2 (IC). Results showed that group 7 where rats fed on whey protein camel gave a noticeable improvement in liver enzymes compared to group 2 with liver injury (IC), followed by group 5 that fed the prebiotic product, followed by group 6 that fed on a synbiotic product, followed by group 3 that fed camel milk, and the group 4 that fed the probiotic product. The least significant improvement in the level of liver enzymes (higher values of liver enzymes) was in the rats of group 8 that fed on camel casein.
3. The results also showed significant differences in levels of oxidative stress MDA and GSH. There was a remarkable rise (p< 0.05) in the level of MDA in all groups compared to the group 1(NC). Results showed that group 7 where rats fed on whey protein camel gave a noticeable improvement in MDA (lowest value). The least significant improvement in the level of MDA (highest value of MDA) was in the rats of group 8 that fed on camel casein (p< 0.05). As for the level of GSH and albumin, a significant decrease was observed in all groups compared to the group 1 ((NC). Groups from three to eight have shown a marked improvement (p< 0.05) in GSH and albumin compared to group 2 with liver injury (IC). Results showed that group 7 where rats fed on whey protein camel gave a noticeable improvement in GSH and albumin (highest values). The least significant improvement in the level of GSH and albumin (lowest values) was in the rats of group 8 that fed on camel casein (p< 0.05).
4. The histological examination of the liver tissue showed changes in all groups of rats in which liver injury was caused by carbon tetrachloride. The results of this examination were identical to the results of the above-mentioned chemical analyzes. Feeding on camel milk, probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, whey protein of camel milk and camel casein contributed improvement to liver tissue compared to the group 2 (IC). It is also, led to an improvement of rats’ weight gain rate.
Conclusion and recommendation:
• It could be concluded that camel milk, probiotic, prebiotics, synbiotic, camel whey proteins and camel casein have a role in improving the condition of the liver in rats with liver injury resulted from injection of carbon tetrachloride and have the ability to reduce the damage resulted from that injection in liver tissue to varying degrees.
• It could also be recommended to use camel milk and its products that have been studied as components of good functional foods for hepatoprotective.
• The whey protein of camel milk, the aqueous extract of the dandelion leaves (prebiotic product) and the fermented camel milk supported with the aqueous extract of the dandelion leaves (synbiotic product) showed the best products to improve the functional and histological conditions of the injured liver.