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This thesis consists of five chapters. It is organized sequentially from the first chapter until the last chapter. The thesis commences with the introduction and finishes with the conclusion and future work.
Chapter 1: This chapter presents skin cancer as one of the most serious cancers that can lead to death of the infected person if not diagnosed early. The number of melanoma cases has been increasing in Europe, America and Australia in recent years.
In the United States, every 57 minutes of death is reported through skin cancer. The cost of cancer treatment is estimated at more than $3.8 billion (7.2%) of health system costs. In 2001, the cost of treating melanoma was estimated at $264 million, while the cost of melanoma was estimated at $30 million.
Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, up to four times the rates in Canada and the United States. In 2014, an estimated 128,000 new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in Australia and are expected to increase to 150,000 by 2020. Two out of three Australians are diagnosed with skin cancer. More than 10,300 people are treated for melanoma and 1430 people die every year.
In fact, if the depth of melanoma is more than 3 millimeters, the chances of death are 41%. The patient may be cured to 95%, if diagnosed and treated early. In the initial stages, treatment can be by removing the infected part by a simple surgery if melanoma does not reach the bloodstream.
Chapter 2: This chapter presents the biology of human skin, skin layers, and skin cancer and its structure. Furthermore, tissues and human cells are explained, taking into account how microscopes work and the procedures used to prepare the tissue to make it visible through the microscope. Also, the chapter discusses the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of the human beings, their role as an essential tool in biology and medicine. Histology is a common performed cell and tissue examination through division and examination under a light microscope or electronic microscope. Moreover, study of changes in cell anatomy is demonstrated and is known as pathological anatomy. This chapter introduces a good knowledge of the natural structure of the skin that is essential to understand pathology. The development of cancer diseases and the types of skin cancer like (Basal cell carcinoma), (Squamous cell carcinoma), (Melanoma) are demonstrated in this chapter. Moreover, the detection and diagnosis methods by medical experts are explained, the technical devices of dermoscopy and diagnoses techniques that used to detect melanoma are discussed.
Chapter 3: This chapter presents an image processing method for automatic skin cancer diagnosis. This method is utilized to detect melanoma using digital dermoscopy. In this chapter, skin imaging techniques, depends on Total Dermoscopy Score method to detect Highly Suspicious Melanoma and Suspicious Melanoma by using global segmentation techniques (Otsu method). Accordingly, the purpose of this chapter is to design an automated system that diagnoses melanoma in early stage. Thus, the main goal of this thesis is to reduce the mortality rate through this type of skin cancer.
Chapter 4: This chapter presents the results for the Total Dermoscopy Score method and discusses the accuracy rate for Highly Suspicious Melanoma cases, Suspicious Melanoma cases and Benign cases. Accordingly, the used skin cancer detection system has been tested on a number of samples. The accuracy rate of the system is 100% for Highly Suspicious Melanoma cases, and the accuracy rate for Suspicious Melanoma cases is 95% and the accuracy rate for benign cases is 90%. Thus, the total accuracy rate of the system is 95%. This method is preferable for patients because it is painless and timeless process than biopsy method. Moreover, it is more advantages for doctors to detect Melanoma in early stage to save the patient life.
Chapter 5: This chapter concluded that Malignant melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer that can be successfully treated if it is detected early. Thus, early intervention will lead to a better survival rate. Since the clinical observation of a melanoma is subject to human error, early detection can be enhanced by utilizing an automated process. The goal of this thesis is to develop an accurate automatic process detection of benign (safe) or dangerous (skin cancer) reducing the error of what can be achieved by clinical observation. This development assists doctors and avoids misdiagnosis.