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Abbas, Hamed Abbas Eidan.
هيئة الاعداد
باحث / حامد عباس عيدان عباس
مشرف / سيد محمود السيد الخولي
مشرف / مشاري لافي الحربي
مناقش / سيد محمود السيد الخولي
مناقش / عمرو محمد عواد
مناقش / محمد عبد العاطي سيد خليل
تاريخ النشر
عدد الصفحات
181 p. :
العلوم البيئية (متفرقات)
تاريخ الإجازة
مكان الإجازة
جامعة عين شمس - معهد البيئة - العلوم الاقتصادية والقانونية والإدارية البيئية
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Water, energy and food (WEF) are crucial resources for human well-being and socioeconomic development. These resources are inextricably linked. Providing abundant and clean sources of water requires energy and similarly food production needs water and energy. The relationship between water, energy, and food is referred to as ”water, energy, and food nexus”. The nexus approach has been widely recognized water, energy, and food nexus which is guaranteed and sustain achieving the security of water, energy, and food.
California (USA), Ningxia (China), and Kuwait have made a great effort to secure their water, energy, and food to meet socio-economic needs. The increase in population, socio-economic growth, and the growth of pattern of life have significantly increased freshwater demands. To face these escalating demands, and due to the limited availability of natural water resources, the government in California and Kuwait resorted to non-conventional water sources, such as the desalinated water, to meet water requirements in the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors.
However, to continue fulfill the needs of those sectors by the current rates through the expansion of desalination plants, it will increase the economic burdens and will lead to negative environmental impacts. The situation will be further aggravated by the lack of comprehensive long-term water, energy and food policies and strategies in the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors that need to be based on nexus approach considerations, instead of concentrating on the fragmented approach that is being practiced presently.
Problem Statement
Due to Kuwait and Ningxia location which is classified as water stressed with limited natural water (only brackish groundwater for Kuwait & Yellow River for Ningxia), the conventional water resource in Kuwait & Ningxia is less than 100 m3/capita, which categorized as absolute scarce country and city under 500 m3/capita (Falkenmark,1990). Therefore, the WEF nexus is considered an ongoing challenge not only for Kuwait and Ningxia but, also for California as well, because it a producer of nearly half of US-grown vegetables, fruits, and nuts.
Furthermore, increase in population, improvements in lifestyle, industrial development, and food security as driving forces contribute to further difficulties in WEF management. In Kuwait, water demand has been increasing gradually in the last twenty years (total consumption of fresh water increased from 260 mm3 in 1994 to 728 mm3 in year 2017) (MEW, 2017). The potable water is secured by distilled seawater, blended with brackish water 3-7%, which is subsequently delivered to domestic, industrial, and agriculture sectors. The desalinated water, using MSF method, is usually combined with power plants that are an energy intensive technology. Thus, increasing desalinated water lead to increase energy requirements. The fossil fuel consumption in power desalination plants rose from 29 to 44 million/barrel during 2008 - 2014 (MEW, 2015). Collected sewage effluents, pumping into treated plants, and treated wastewater from Kuwait city and its suburbs are also required enormous energy alongside transfer treated wastewater into farms.
Moreover, to meet food security, the agriculture production ratio was 5.6% annually between 2009 and 2013 and is expected to reach 13% by 2020 (SCPD, 2015). Brackish groundwater is the primary source for agriculture followed by TWW then fresh water. Water consumption increased from 260 mm3 in 1994 to 727 mm3 in 2017 (MEW,2018). In addition, energy consumed for agricultural purposes such as irrigation, tilling, and post-harvest processing increased from 9 million/litre to 14 million/litre during 2007 and 2014 (Diesel & Gasoline) which in turn increased the electricity quantity consumed from 25 million to 49 million kW/ h within the same period (CAB, 2014). Thus, increasing of fossil fuel consumption contributes gratefully to air pollution especially burning diesel fuel, which is recorded 11% growth rate of CO2 emissions for diesel and 2% for gasoline fuel between 2007 and 2014.
Kuwaiti decision and policy makers have not taken act toward implementing long-term strategy concerned on water, energy, and food and have acknowledged the strong and tightening nexus between water and energy as mentioned in “Abu Dhabi Declaration”. That strategy takes into account the inter-dependencies between water and energy and agriculture, impacts of climate change, and environmental impacts of desalination, and emphasizing water demand management, and conservation (GCC summit, 2010).This indicates unsustainable water, energy, and food practices that would eventually result in serious consequences on the environment, and national budget alongside future generations.
Research significant
Water, energy, and food (WEF) security is sensitive key for building a sustainable economy. In fact, a high level of interconnectedness exists between the three resources which have to be taken into consideration. These resources form WEF nexus are affected by external factors such as a growing population, changing economies, international trade, governance, health impacts, environmental impacts, and climate change. Therefore, sustainable WEF management and effective policies should be formulated toward accomplishing the New Kuwaiti vision (Kuwait as Financial Commercial Hub by 2035).
Thus, recognizing the intimate connection between WEF resources is necessary to move to more integrative and sustainable approach for resource management by identifying the opportunities and its cost whether environmentally or economically within the overall system. This research focusing on three different places: namely; Kuwait, California (USA), and Ningxia (China) as a comparative study. Kuwait and Ningxia have a similar classification (water stressed). Also, Kuwait and California are depending on desalination technology to produce fresh water. Ningxia and California have better experience dealing with WEF nexus than the State of Kuwait.

Research Aim and Objectives
The research aim is to conduct a baseline for the sustainable strategic planning of water, energy and food nexus in State of Kuwait comparative with California and Ningxia. To accomplish research aim, number of objectives shall be sustained and consolidated for final results. These objectives are as follows:
1. To understand water-energy, and food nexus, considering environmental, sociological, and economical drivers such as climate change, rapid population growth, and energy precise in each sector (agricultural and domestic).
2. To investigate and build-up precise, current policies in Kuwait within WEF Nexus
3. To develop an integrated dynamic model for WEF system for all governances in Kuwait and future demand with/ without climate change. Also, determining the incremental impact (environment, economic, and social).
4. To identify opportunities in water, energy, and food system
5. To provide a baseline of proactive strategy with respect to water, energy, and food alongside environmental, sociological, and economic aspects to achieve human well-being for next generations.

The high income in Kuwait and California contribute to better WEF management comparing with Ningxia
2. Increasing temperature significantly impacts on consumption of water, energy, and food.
Considering the interdisciplinary nature of the study, both primary and secondary data ware used in this study. A comparative study combination of statistical and quantitative analysis employed. Aim and objective shall be achieved within several phases of the research approach using different types of methods and tools as required.
Phase one: Understand WEF linkages:
1. Scanning literature reviews considering WEF management
2. Collect long series data from government and non-government reports
3. Statistical analyses by using JMP software to figure out interrelationships and trade-off between WEF system through ANOVA, multicollinearity, and stepwise regression analysis for the state of Kuwait
Phase two: Investigate and buildup precise, current policies in Kuwait, California, and Ningxia:
1. Collect data and information about current policies of WEF in the state of Kuwait from government and other documents
2. Assessment and analyses of the sustainability of current WEF policies by using Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) for Kuwait.
Phase three: An integrated model for water, energy, and food systems for all governances in Kuwait:
1. Building an Integrated dynamic model, and analyzing by using Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) and Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software
Phase Four: propose a baseline of proactive Strategy
1. Scanning literature reviews of California and Ningxia experiences and practices
2. Formulate proposed strategic plan including and future targets.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Water, Energy, and Food are three inextricably interrelated and trade-off system. Population, urbanization, and increasing the temperature degrees are considered the most variables effect on water, energy, and food system. There is strong correlation between rising of gross domestic production and water, energy, and food consumption. Obviously, the leaders in State of Kuwait not taking the impact of climate change on water energy and food resource seriously. Kuwait does not have a long-term water plan comprising water, energy, and food nexus aspects. Kuwait has proper policies for bridging between advocating population needs and water, energy, and food security. Whereas those policies might not meet future requirements due to highly consumptions.
The business as usual scenario ensures that increasing of water, energy, and food within next 17 years for all governorates. Besides that, the climate change will affect increasingly on the WEF system. By using several interventions management policies would help the water, energy, and food system to insure its sustainability. The interventions such as reducing per capita consumption, saving devices, population control, and suing reverse osmosis technology will reduce the demand about 50% by year 2035. Water, energy, and food practices are limited in the State of Kuwait comparing with California and Ningxia practices.
The research is significantly recommended to setup an integrated water, energy, and food strategy. This strategy should be adopting a governance and social-behavioral policies for water, energy, and food system embedded low and regulation to demonstrate those resources effectively. Granting the NGOs, private sectors, and academia more financing to adopting and implementing water energy and food programs. Restructuring the electricity and water sector and establishment public utility for electricity and water. This utility operating on a commercial and competitive basis, to improve the efficiency of the service, improve performance and reduce the cost of production by allowing the private sector to participate in electricity and water projects.
Kuwait needs rapid steps toward achieving water, energy, and food management sustainability. 1.Water, energy, and food guidelines portfolio. 2.Developing consistent water, energy, and food data reporting standards 3. Develop water, energy, and food partnerships between government, private, and Non-governmental entities.