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Infant formula known as ”baby food” is artificial alternative to breastfeeding. It is used in some cases where breastfeeding is not available or insufficient. Infant formulae are designed for infant consumption and are usually dependent on cow milk.
The purpose of the technological development in infant feeding is to improve the effectiveness of the diet to maintain the life, health and wellbeing of infant. In this study, we tried to create new infant formulae with high immunity to protect infants from common diseases. For this purpose, we used sweet whey, which is the by-product of cheese making, which has a high biological value, hence the importance of using sweet whey in the manufacture of infant formulae, especially if it is fermented Bifidobacterium to increase its vital value and then add it to cow milk / camel milk.
To achieve this goal, it was necessary to compare commercial infant formula with new infant formulae.
All major infant formula produces development of their own brands by specific compositions. However, much legislation as (Egyptian Standard Specification for infant formula 2013 and Codex Standard) provide the regulatory framework for the infant formula.
Comparison between commercial infant milk formulae available in Egyptian markets and Egyptian standard specifications for infant formula:
Ten kinds of infant formulae were collected from Egyptian market. All samples were coded from 1 to 10 and collected information of chemical composition form label then, compared this information with Egyptian Standard Specification for infant formula to determine the extent of conformity. Moreover, milk infant formulae have different prices according to contain of minerals, vitamins and others substances fortification contains.
The following results could be summarized as follow:
Most commercial infant formulae achieved more than 66% for Egyptian Standard Specification for infant formula for (fat, protein and carbohydrates). It also achieved 100% for (minerals and vitamins).
It should be noted that, there is no relationship between the prince and the added ingredients.
Preparation infant formulae from cow milk or/ and camel milk supplemented with fermented sweet whey:
Modification sweet whey by fermented to be healthier for infant feeding.
The sweet whey was fermented byBifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and Bifidobacterium longum (Bb-46) as 3% (W/V).
There proposed formulae were prepared by mixing cow/ camel milk with fermented sweet whey with a six different levels of cow milk and camel milk follows:
Formula 1 (1:1) FSW: Cow milk.
Formula 2 (1:2) FSW: Cow milk.
Formula 3(2:1) FSW: Cow milk.
Formula 4 (1:1) FSW: Camel milk.
Formula 5 (1:2) FSW: Camel milk.
Formula 6 (2:1) FSW: Camel milk.
All formulae were cooled immediately at 4°C.
Chemical composition, pH value, calorie, minerals contents, antioxidant activity of commercial infant formula, sweet whey, fermented sweet whey, cow milk, camel milk, and cow/camel milk with fermented sweet whey:
The aim of this section is to compare commercial infant formula with new infant formulae of chemical composition.
The study showed that commercial infant formula contains higher carbohydrates than new infant formulae. Thus, the calculated energy showed a relatively higher value in commercial infant formula than new infant formulae. Moerover, (FSW: Cow milk) and (FSW: Camel milk) in a ratio (1: 2) achieved Egyptian Standard Specification for infant formula. The level of pH in commercial milk was close to new infant formulae. As well as, commercial infant formula contains less protein, ash, some minerals, total phenols, and flavonoids than new infant formulae.
In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion:
Bioavailability of Protein
The results showed that, the percentage of digested protein was relatively higher in the new infant formulae.It should be noted fermentation of whey with cow/camel milk improved bioavailability of protein.
Sensory Evaluation, panelists scores led undoubtedly to extract that, all sensory attributes were significantly improved as the new infant formulae: fermented sweet whey with cow milk (FSW) (1:1), (2:1) and FSW with camel milk (2:1).
It should be noted that, the sample (FWS: Cow milk) in ratio 1:2 have the highest sensory evaluation than all investigated samples.
Evaluation of the nutritional adequacy of different proposed infant formulae:
The proposed new the adequacy of infant formula was evaluated by used Seventy two males Albino Sprague - Dawley rats, 4 week old average weight ranged between (62 + 3g) every 6 rats placed in cage and then we feed the rats on the Basel diet.
The rats divided into 12 groups as follows:
group (1): Rats fed on basal diet.
group (2): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day ofcommercial infant formula.
group (3): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of Sweet whey (SW).
group (4): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of fermented whey (FSW).
group (5): Rats fed on basal diet, + 2 ml/rat/day of cow milk.
group (6): Rats fed on basal diet, + 2 ml/rat/day of (1:1) FSW: Cow milk.
group (7): Rats fed on basal diet, + 2 ml/rat/day of (1:2) FSW: Cow milk.
group (8): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of (2:1) FSW: Cow milk.
group (9): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of Camel milk.
group (10): Rats fed on basal diet, + 2 ml/rat/day of (1:1) FSW: Camel milk.
group (11): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of (1:2) FSW: Camel milk.
group (12): Rats fed on basal diet, +2 ml/rat/day of (2:1) FSW: Camel milk.
Samples of milk were given as (2-12) 2ml/rat/day by stomach tube. In addition, each 100g basal diet was mixed water or milk samples. Also, the body weight was recorded weekly.
After 45 days of experimental period, the animals were anaesthetized. The blood samples were collected from eye plexuses and divided into patches. The first patch was collected in heparin tube to obtain the whole blood for measure the blood profile immediately. Second patch was collected in clean tube to obtain the serum. Were estimated the blood glucose, plasma lipid profile, kidney functions (serum uric acid, urea and creatinine), liver functions (serum Aspirate aminotransferee and Alanine aminotransferee and determination of immunoglobulin A/G.
The results showed that, group fed on cow milk was highest in BWG, RKW, and RKW. These results may agree that we did not feed the infant before its first year with unmodified cow’s milk. It should be noted that, fermentation of whey with cow/camel milk improved BWG, RKW, and RKW.
The groups fed on camel milk with FSW had improved in blood profile than cow milk with FSW. While, groups fed on cow/ camel milk had improved in blood profile than commercial infant formula. Moreover, group fed onFSW significantly at (p ≤ 0.05) had improved in blood profile than group fed on FSW.
The fermenting whey group had decreased level of blood glucose than sweet whey. Also, all groups fed on cow/camel milk with FWS have reduced blood glucose than commercial infant formula. Groups fed on Camel milk with FSW had decreased value of TC and TG than other groups. The cow milk with FSW groups showed significant at (p ≤ 0.05) differences among cow milk only. Fermented whey with cow/ camel milk significantly at (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the levels of (VLDL) and (LDL-c) in profiles. Fermented whey by bifidobacteria improves serum lipid profiles.
The cow milk group tended to have higher total serum urea, uric acid and creatinine than cow/ camel milk with FSW.
Fermented whey with cow/ camel milk groups tended to have lower in ALT and AST than cow/ camel milk.
Fermented whey with camel milk groups tented to have higher in immunoglobulin A/G than cow milk with FSW.
All groups feed on FSW was improved immunity system than SW.
It is necessary to use camel milk in complementary treatment of some diseases.
It is necessary to use camel milk in infant formula because it increases immunity for children.
The importance of using Bifidobacteria in infant formula becauseit improves digestion.
Importance of nutritional and economic whey.
Feeding the infant with cow / camel milk with FSW were improved the immune system.
Fermented sweet whey with cow’s milk and camels are considered functional foods.