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The primary probiotic bacteria associated with dairy products have been Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium. Studies using animal models of diabetes have also shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei attenuate to have antidiabetic effects. Soymilk has been a rich source of protein which is inexpensive and abundantly available. The fermentation of soy milk products changes the bioactive components, such as isoflavonoids and peptides, in ways which may alter their efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of different milk types, conventional yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from Bifidobacterium for rats induced to diabetes.
In this study we used six ninety of male albino rats average weight ranged between (220±20g) Every 8 rats placed in a cage and then we feed the rats on the basel diet.
The rats are divided into two main groups as follows:
• The first main group (control negative group): consisting of eight rats were fed on the basel diet.
• The second main group are divided into11 sub-groups contain 8 rats for each group injected first with sterptozotocin (STZ) 0.55 mg/kg in sodium chloride 0.09% for 5 days to cause diabetes and divided in to :
• The first subgroup: Will be fed on basel diet as a control positive group.
• The second subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50ml cow milk.
• The third subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50 ml soymilk.
• The fourth subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50 ml whey protein.
• The fifth subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50 ml whey protein and soymilk.
• The sixth subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g conventional yogurt from cow milk
• The seventh subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g conventional yoghurt from soymilk.
• The eights subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g conventional yoghurt from soymilk and whey protein.
• The nine subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g probiotics yoghurt from cow milk.
• The ten subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g probiotics yoghurt from soy milk.
• The eleven subgroup: Fed on basel diet + 50g probiotics yoghurt from soymilk and whey protein.
At the end of experiment (6 weeks), all rats were be fasted over night before sacrificed and the blood samples collected, and centrifuged to obtain the serum. Were estimated the blood glucose, plasma lipid profile, kidney function (serum uric acid, urea and creatinine), liver function, total antioxidant capacity, Malondialdehyde and Glutathione.
Soymilk contains peptides, saponins, isoflavones, and oligosaccharides and the same proportion of protein as cow’s milk: around 3.5%; also 2% fat, 2.9% carbohydrate, and 0.5% ash.
Yoghurt made by probiotic bacteria tended to have the highest total protein for soy yoghurt, soymilk and sweet whey protein. Moreover, the fat content for fermented milk (yoghurt) was lower than row milk and soymilk
The results reported that the groups feed on fermentation yoghurt from Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus of soy milk and cow milk groups showed significant (p≤0.05) decreased plasma glucose than the groups which fed on soy milk and cow milk without fermentation.
In this context, fermentation of soybean/soy milk has reported to improve bioavailability of isoflavones, assists in digestion of protein, and provide more soluble calcium, reduced level of carbohydrates and increased level of bioactive isoflavones and bioactive peptides in ways which may alter their efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The probiotic soy yoghurt from Bifidobacterium group has decrees value of TC and TG than other groups. The soy milk group showed significant at (p≤ 0.05) differences among cow and whey protein.
Soymilk fermented with Bifidobacterium significantly at (p≤ 0.05) decreased the levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in rats. Soy isoflavones in soy yoghurt improves serum lipid profiles, vascular reactivity, and protection of LDL against oxidation.
Probiotic soy yoghurt tended to have the highest total TCA and GT for all investigated samples followed by soy yoghurt and the lowest in the level MDA observed in probiotic soy yoghurt followed by probiotic milk yoghurt and probiotic whey protein and soymilk. The soymilk increase the level of TCA and GT was higher than cow milk.
The cow milk group tended to have higher total serum urea, creatinine and uric acid than soymilk which, it may be the vegetable protein, especially soy protein, may have less effect on renal function compared to cow milk.
All groups feed on probiotics yoghurt have serum urea, creatinine and uric acid lower than the groups fed on conventional yoghurt and there are significant (p≤0.05).
According to the results of the present study it recommended that:
Consuming soy-protein reduces serum blood glucose and lipid profile.
Consuming that probiotic yogurt from cow milk and soy milk is a functional food that can exert antidiabetic.
Consumptions of soymilk has good alternative for those who are allergic to cow’s milk.
The study recommended that whey protein has been shown to reduce cholesterol by inhibiting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) production.