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Eoronary artery disease is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in many countries worldwide. Despite the search for novel risk factors, some factors still play a major role; these factors are hypertension, dyslipidaemias, smoking, obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity.
One of the most frequent and serious complications associated with CAD is thrombosis, possibly arising from increased platelet activation and/ or loss of the regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis.
Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor is a single chain glycoprotein zymogen synthesized mainly in the liver, also identified in platelets and is secreted upon platelet activation. TAFI is a recently described inhibitor of fibrinolysis, has been hypothesized as playing a role in atherothrombosis. The direct action of TAFI as an inhibitor of clot lysis involves removal of carboxy-terminal lysyl and arginyl residues from partially degraded fibrin. Consequently, plasminogen binding sites are eliminated and plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis are inhibited.
The aim of this study was to measure plasma TAFI level by ELISA technique in 70 patients with CAD including acute coronary syndrome (STEM, NSTEM and unstable angina) and stable angina. In addition to 10 healthy age- matched volunteers taken as a normal control group.
In the present study, risk factors for coronary artery disease patients were significantly higher regarding mean of age, SBP, DBP, FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and BMI compared to control group (p<0.05), while mean of HDL level was higher in control group compared to patients’ groups (p<0.05).
The present study demonstrated that, TAFI plasma level in control group ranged from (4 - 15 μg/ mL), ACS patients (group I) from (12 - 38 μg/ mL) and stable angina patients (group II) from (14 - 37 μg/ mL).
This study observed that, TAFI plasma level was significantly higher among patients with CAD compared to control group (p<0.05), while there was no significant difference in its level between patient groups (p>0.05).
Regarding the association between TAFI plasma level and other studied risk factors, we found no statistically significant correlation between TAFI plasma level regarding age, mean of SBP & DBP, FBS, and BMI, in all studied patient groups (p>0.05). Also, no difference was found between smokers and non-smokers regarding TAFI level neither in group I, nor in group II (p>0.05).No association was found between TAFI level and mean of cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL in studied groups neither in control group nor in group II (p>0.05), while mean of HDL was inversely correlated with TAFI level only in group I (p<0.05).