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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Conventional energy, such as diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity are used as the main source of energy in the operation of self farm machinery, however there is a problem in lower rates of energy available for the required rates of consumption and lack of availability in the agricultural seasons and high prices.
Egypt is one of the countries which are located in the Sunbelt in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn where the earth receives huge amounts of sunlight.
The main objectives of this study were as follow:
Use of solar energy as new renewable energy, clean and safe and available.
Reduce the rates of environmental pollution that resulted from traditional energy source.
Using solar energy to operate self-farm Machines.
Reduce the total operate cost agriculture machinery.
The experiments in this study were run at summer season 2017 by solar station at Heliopplis University. Sun light is used as the sustainable source of energy. And photovoltaic system was used to operate small stationary Agricultural machine (milling machine – Feeder – Mixer ). Photovoltaic system (PV) is semiconductor devices that convert sunlight to direct electricity (current DC).
It was consisting of three main parts:
1- Solar panel station was consisting of 16 modules; each module is consisting of 60 solar cells.
2- Inverter to converts the DC voltage back to AC voltage for machine motor.
3- Switch for controlling the machine operation by turning on and off.
4- Wiers and control unit.
5- Machines :
1) Milling machine using for grainding agriculture grains and bakery residus supot by using motor 1500 watt.
2) Mixer, it is tool that mixes the ingredients that have been grinded to produce the appropriate mixure for the feeding process by using motor 1100 watt.
3) Feeder, it is the tool responsible for the the process of removing the products outside the machine and packaging them until they are ready for use in animal feeding by using motor 375 watt.
Machines were operated by solar energy at different period of time from 9 am to 17 pm. Two raw materials (maize – dry bread) were used with milling machine, Mixer and Feeder. Solar radiation was recorded by Centeral Laboratory for Agriculture Climate, Dokki.
The main results were as follows:
• Solar radiation was from 358 to 790 W.m-2 and the power was resulted from PV system was from 1.16 to 2.55 kW at period of study at different period of time from 9 am to 17 pm..
• The power consumption were 1.4 and 1.37 kW with maize and dry bread respectively.
• The best time to operate the milling machine was from 10 am to 4pm.
• The maximum productivity was 9.09 kg.h-1 and 7.5 kg.h-1 with maize and dry bread respectively.
• For Mixer: The power consumption was about 1.05 to 1.07 kW. The best time to operate the mixer was from 9 am to 5 pm.
• For Feeder: The power consumption was 0.33 to 0.36 kW, and the best time to operate the feeder was from 9 am to 5 pm.
• For Feeder and Milling Machine (F + Mi): The power consumption was 1.53 kW. The best time to operate the Feeder and Milling Machine were from 10 am to 3pm.
• For Mixer and Milling Machine (Mi + Mx): The power consumption was 2.1 kW, and the best time to operate the Mixer and Milling Machine were about 11 am to 2 pm.
• For Feeder and Mixer (F + Mx): The power consumption was 1.28 kW, and the best time to operate the Feeder and Mixer was from 10 am to 3pm.
• For Feeder, Mixer and Milling Machines (F + Mi + Mx): The power consumption was 2.35 kW, and the best time to operate the Feeder, Mixer and Milling Machine were from 11 am to 2pm.
When using electricity energy the cost for operating milling machine, mixer machine and feeder machine were (15, 14.8, 14.6 L.E.h-1) respectively, but when using solar energy the cost to operate the previouse machines were (18.07, 17.87, 17.67 L.E.h-1) respectively, and when using gasoline fuel were (18.8, 17.9, 16.5 L.E.h-1) respectively
The average cost between three different source of energy (electricity, PV, gasoline) for operating machines were (17.8, 19.87, 26.5 L.E.h-1 ) respectively.
Operate farm machines by Solar-powered system are costly and can be used cost effectively if necessary management was made to increase system efficiency, this can be done as as follows:
1. The use of PV milling systems especially for materials that do not require high power in grinding the process with limited needs, especially in places farway from electricity grids and also in developing countries to reduce the burden of government support for energy source.
2. Economically and environmentally, it is recommended to rely on new and renewable energies, special solar energy as alternative sources of fossil fuels.
3. It is necessary to choose the components that are efficienty when designing solar energy systems, as they a direct impact the overall efficiency of the system.
4. The study recommends that government invest in the use of photovoltaic cells to generate electricity as sustainable, clean and economically viable alternative to overcome the energy problem.
5. When the power exceeds the need or insufficient for machine operation, the power will be stored in batteries or it will be added to the government grid if the system allows.