Only 14 pages are availabe for public view
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood. It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Moreover it was stated that a high incidence of pathological encephalography (EEG) findings, together with the presence of language and speech disorders had been reported in school aged children with ADHD.
Interestingly it was mentioned that the detection of epileptiform activities in persons with no seizure history raises questions regarding the probability of future seizures and whether that probability justifies treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) or restriction of activities such as driving, flying aircraft, or playing sports only.
For all these reasons we find it of a great value and a field of interest upon which this study was established and aiming towards finding a better management plan and prevention of more comorbidities among children suffering from ADHD in our society.
It was a designed cross sectional study that included 50 children aged from 4 -14 years old who were diagnosed as ADHD cases according to DSM V; they were selected randomly from ADHD cases regularly attending the Child Psychiatry Clinic of Faculty of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University during the period from within the year of 2015. Any ADHD child who had Psychiatric disorders other than ADHD, IQ below 90, or with past history of epileptic fits, inborn errors of metabolism , or major cardiac problems were excluded from the study.
All the studied patients were subjected to investigations as follows:
• DSM -V criteria for ADHD: to settle the diagnosis of the disorder.
• Conner’s parent rating scale for detection of severity of ADHD.
• Intelligence quotient (IQ) test using Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale V5, The Arabic version.
Electroencephalography study for detection of any epileptiform activities.
Regarding the type of ADHD, There was a higher percentage of combined ADHD followed by inattentive ADHD (76%, 18% respectively), however hyperactive ADHD represent only 6%.
Conner’s ADHD Index results distribution of the enrolled cases showed that there was a higher percentage of sever ADHD followed by moderate ADHD then mild ADHD (70%, 20%, and 10% respectively).
Speech problems, among ADHD cases, were positive in (32%) of cases.
In ADHD patients results showed more frequency of epileptiform activity, and an increased frequency of rolandic spikes in the cases.
Epileptiform activities were detected in ADHD children with the focal (46%) and generalized (8%) type with the marked combined type mostly presented in the focal group.
There is a statistical significant correlation between type of epileptiform activity (generalized or focal) and ADHD severity performed by the Conner’s parent rating scale (p=0.014), however there was no statistical significance between the type of epileptiform activity (generalized or focal) and ADHD type performed by DSM V.
There is a statistical significant difference between age category and background activity with a P-value of (P=0.002), where 75.9% of children with 7 -14 years compared to 28.6% of 4-6 years had abnormal background activity.
There is a statistical significant difference between speech problems and background activity with, χ2=14.195 and a P-value of (P=0.028), and there is a statistical significant difference between speech problems and left central epileptiform activities with χ2=8.372 and a P-value of (P=0.039). where all cases of reversal of speech showed abnormal background activity and 66.7% of the ADHD cases presented with stuttering had left central activity.
There is a statistical significant difference between ADHD severity with the Conner’s ADHD parent scale and the generalized epileptiform activities with χ2=8.269 and a P-value of (P=0.016), where 40% of mild ADHD cases had generalized epileptiform activity.