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Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune complex depositions that cause inflammation and tissue damage in multiple organs. The clinical course of SLE is characterized by periods of both exacerbation and remission, with manifestations ranging from mild dermatological and joint symptoms to life threatening internal organ failures. The diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings.
The pharmacological management of patients with SLE revolves around four main classes of drugs, often in combination; non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarials, corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs.
Hydroxychloroquine has become a cornerstone in SLE treatment, acting on a range of different pathways and having many beneficial effects, such as immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and photoprotective effects. In addition to its efficacy in preventing SLE flares, HCQ protects against diabetes mellitus, thrombotic events, dyslipidaemia and overall damage accrual in patients with SLE.
Our study was cross sectional study included a convenient sample of 80 systemic lupus erythematosus patients to get the prevelance and risk factors of HCQ retinopathy .
In the present study only 5 patients (6.3 %) of the studied patients developed picture of hydroxycholoroquine retinopathy.
As regard the demographic data the HCQ retinopathy not related to age or sex of the studied patients.
We found a significant relation between the duration of hydroxycholoquine therapy & hydroxycholoroquine retinopathy detected by abnormal fundus autoflourescence with (P value=0.003).
A significant relationship between fundus abnormality and hydoxycholoroquine retinopathy detected by abnormal fundus autoflourescence with (pvalue = 0.000).
Also a Significant relationship between decrease best corrected visual acquity of both eyes and hydroxycholoroquine retinopathy detected by abnormal fundus autoflourescence with (p value 0.000).
There was no relationship between HCQ retinopathy detected by fundus autoflourescence and body weight, dose, dose/kg.
Also there was no relationship between hydroxycholoroquine and age , sex, clinical manifestations of SLE, SLE activity, immunological markers and laboratory data.
By comparing the routine fundus examination and fundus autoflourescence, the later was better for detecting early HCQ retinopathy.