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1. Nile River is suffering from enormous pollution sources such as domestic waste, industrial waste and agriculture waste which violate the environmental laws for protection of Nile.
2. Samples were collected from 15 different sites. Ten of them from river Nile water (Intakes of El-Tebeen, Maadi, Manial Al Rawdah, Kafr Kandeel in Atfeeh, El Saff, Gezira Al Dahab, Giza, Al Hawamdiyah, Basoos and Embaba DWTPs), Three sites at Ismailia Canal (intakes of Abo Zaabal, Al amarya and Kalyobe DWTP) and two from Al Reeyah ElTawfekey (intakes of Benha and El-Abadla DWTPs).
3. Survey for River Nile water indicated normal concentrations for chemical parameters and COD in the end of allowed limits where recorded 9.998 mg/L but Ismailia Canal and Al Reeyah El Tawfekey indicated normal conditions for chemical parameters except COD where recorded 12.6 and 11.9 respectly , lead, zinc and cadmium not within the acceptable limits. Due to many industries such as petrochemical and petroleum industries. Also the drains and domestic waste from villages which have no sanitation system and the depth and width of them lower than the Nile.
4. The results of the present investigation revealed that the indicators for pathogen bacteria in Nile water indicated Total Coliform mean during the sampling period of the plants intakes between 10329 - 67571 MPN/100cm3 and Escherichia coli mean was between 1907 – 13664 MPN/100cm3, where it higher in Ismailia Canal from Nile water and El Reeyah El Tawfekey . Due to the domestic waste from villages which have no sanitation system on its sides.
5. Total Algal count mean during the sampling period of the plants intakes between 1783 - 3718 unit/1ml, where Al Reeyah El Tawfekey recorded the highest values. Due to the agriculture activity on its sides.
6. Water quality at Ismailia Canal and Al Reeyah El Tawfekey Canal are worse than the Nile water due to the higher self-purification in Nile due to its areas and length.
7. All the water plants in Egypt, applies conventional treatment by the same method regardless of the microbial quality of water in the intakes so, the need for the addition of pre-chlorine in the plants should be determined depending on the microbiological intake water quality of each plant in terms of the number of coliforms and the number of algae, in addition to the chemicals analysis that already done. Also to prevent formation of Trihalomethanes as a result of chlorination of organic matter present naturally in raw water supplies (WHO, 2017).