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This thesis is interested in the Applied Physics major especially the earth physics. It deals with waves propagating through the earth.
One of the points of this research is the time delay estimation technique, which is used to measure the time difference among the acquired seismic signals automatically. It is also used as a tool to measure the similarity measurement between the seismic signals. This technique is computed by the second order time domain statistics (cross correlation and coherence ratio), and the third order time domain statistics (bispectral correlation and bicoherence ratio). Time delay estimation technique is involved in many scientific and industrial applications for instance aircraft detection, weather forecasting, medical imaging and earth mapping
In addition an algorithm is proposed, for estimating the first break picks of the seismic signals automatically, based on the time delay estimation technique. This technique is tested by synthetic data and these results verified by real seismic data sets.
Further an electronic earth motions detection system is proposed, which consists of earth detector with high sensitivity maybe less than 5Hz, amplification unit with two gain levels (300 to 1000), and high resolution interface card (Analogy to Digital Converter) with a reliable software for capturing and recording. This system is used to acquire the seismic waves from real model. In addition it is involved in many applications of scientific and industrial purposes that are required high inspection measuring and detection.