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The current study aimed to assess the relation between mild cognitive impairment and type 2 diabetes and to identify risk factors related to mild cognitive impairment.
A comparative cross-sectional study on a sample of 100 type 2 diabetic patients from Zagazig university outpatient clinics with age range 40-60 years old. These patients were compared to age, sex and education matched 100 non-diabetic controls.
- An interview questionnaire was designed and filled by the researcher with special emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of MCI like (age, sex, education, occupation, duration of diabetes, living habits, smoking, tea, coffee and physical activity).
- Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): a sensitive, valid and reliable 30-point questionnaire that is used to measure cognitive impairment. It examines functions including registration, attention, calculation, recall, language, ability to follow simple commands and orientation.
The main finding of the study is the prevalence of MCI was 22% among diabetic group and 9% among non-diabetic control group with P<0.05. Almost 3 times increasing risk of having MCI (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.5).
The prevalence of MCI among diabetics and non-diabetics controls increased significantly with age, about 8 and 2.5 times risk to have MCI in older age respectively. (OR=8.02, 95% CI 1.9-32.3 & OR=2.5, 95% CI 0.5-13.8).
Among the studied risk factors, longer duration of diabetes was significantly associated with MCI. Among diabetics with > 10 years duration of DM 31.1% had MCI compared to 7.7% among diabetics with <10 years duration of DM (P<0.01) and almost 5 times increasing risk of having MCI (OR=5.4, 95% CI 1.4-19.8).
Among diabetics with history of hypoglycemic episodes 57.1% had MCI compared to 18.6% of diabetics without history (P<0.01) with four times increasing risk of having MCI (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.1).
Hypertension was significantly associated with MCI among both diabetic and non-diabetic control group. About 28% of hypertensive diabetics had MCI compared to 9.7% of non-hypertensive diabetics (P<0.05) with 3 times increasing risk of having MCI (OR=3.5, 95% CI 0.96-13.1). While, 20.6% of hypertensive non-diabetics had MCI compared to 4.2% of non-hypertensive (P<0.01) and 3 times increasing risk of having MCI (OR=8.29, 95%CI 1.61-42.5).
Among diabetics with history of heart diseases 43.8% had MCI compared to 17.9% among those without heart diseases had MCI (P<0.05) and 3 times increasing risk of having MCI. Among non-diabetic controls with heart diseases 12.5% had MCI compared to 8.3% among those without heart diseases (P>0.05).
In the present study, the mean consumption of the certain food items like eggs, unroasted nuts, balanced meal and dairy products were significantly higher among both diabetics and controls with normal cognition compared to those with MCI (P<0.05).
In this study we didn’t find a statistical significance between participants with confirmed MCI and those with normal cognitive function among two the groups regarding some important food items (fish, canned tuna, whole brown grains, vegetables, oranges, dark green vegetables, fruits and dark chocolate), P>0.05.
In this study, diabetics with normal cognition were having more social activities (going to clubs and listening to the radio) with p<0.05 and also controls with normal cognition spent more time in social activities (praying at mosques) and mental activities (suduko games) with p<0.01.
from the current study it’s concluded that, type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with MCI and it can be considered as a risk factor for it.
Among other studied risk factors, age, duration of diabetes, history of hypoglycemia, hypertension, heart diseases were significantly associated with MCI
Some important food items (eggs, unroasted nuts, balanced meal and dairy products) were found to be associated with better cognitive function.
Social and mental activities (going to clubs, praying at mosques, listening to the radio and playing suduko games) were found to be associated with better cognitive function.
from the current study, it’s concluded that type 2 diabetes mellitus can be considered as a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment. Longer duration of disease and history of hypoglycemia increase risk of having MCI among diabetic patients.
Among other studied risk factors, age, hypertension and heart diseases are independently associated with cognitive decline. Some food items (balanced meal, eggs and unroasted nuts), social and mental activities may have played a role in better cognition.