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In this study, alternative wastewater management strategies were proposed, analysed and a final set of action/strategies was recommended to improve the water quality of the drain based on SWOT analysis. The study also provides a quantitative basis to analytically determine the ranking of the factors in SWOT analysis via conventional multi criteria decision-making methods. The optimum wastewater management strategy was obtained by optimising the following strategies:  reducing weakness and threats (WT),  optimizing strengths and increasing opportunities (SO), optimizing the facility to cut back the threats (ST) and reducing weakness to increase opportunities (WO). Strategies based on Strength–opportunities (SO) were found to have the first priority including: developing adequate facilities for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in terms of capacity and quality especially for those tributaries/areas/villages that discharge directly to the drain;
And assessing drainage water quality was enhanced by utilizing the water quality simulation model (HEC-RAS) to explore the environmental impacts based on the rule of treatment. The study includes the following activities: field estimations, laboratory examination and data interpretation for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Organic Nitrogen, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Organic Phosphorus and Ortho Phosphate.
The pollution loads were calculated, the tributaries/stations that have the highest negative impact on the water quality of the drain were identified and finally six different scenarios were developed by decreasing the concentration by 25 and 50% from its current values.
The results indicate that the sixth scenario in which 50% improvement in water quality of the point sources of samatay & P.S. 3,4,5,6 wastewater treatment plants is the best scenario followed by the fourth (enhancement in the wastewater plants that are in the reach of Samatay and (5) Pump stations, which results in improving the water quality at these stations by 50%). And fifth scenarios (the enhancement in the wastewater stations that are in the catchment of (6, 3, 4) stations, which assume to improve the water quality at these point sources by 50%). The implementation of these scenarios depends mainly on the provision of financial allocations
The results of this study confirm the importance of utilizing the new low-cost technologies, for effluent treatment for El-Gharbia drain.
Emphasizing the activation of programs that harmonize the environmental conditions of large industries
Expand training programs/procedures to improve the quality of technical staff
Provide farmers with adequate/proper information on the practices of water supply and environmental conservation
The expansion of the installation of purification units on the tributary drains that feed El-Gharbia drain for water treatment before reaching the drain
Extend the experience of biological treatment of agricultural wastewater
Expansion of the construction of domestic wastewater treatment plants in the areas directly disposed of El-Gharbia drain
Force all factories to install secondary treatment plants
Using high technology (tertiary treatment of wastewater discharged to the drain)
Separation of industrial and domestic wastes in concrete channels adjacent to the drain
These proposed strategies will not be realized if the following factors are not available:
The provision of financial funds in the state budget for the work of purification and development and the establishment of sewage treatment plants
Provision of the necessary funds for the expansion of the construction of the purification projects (Domestic and industrial)
Increasing the investments in domestic and industrial wastewater treatment
Increase the financial allocations to local units and pollution control measures
Work on reducing the costs of treatment and especially advanced treatment by supporting scientific research in this field
Increase budgets allocated to programs to confront sources of pollution and raise the efficiency of monitoring procedures
Also, it is recommended to develop the advanced treatment methods/techniques preferably those with relatively low-cost facilities such as using biological treatment (Instream Wetlands) and enforcing the Egyptian environmental legislations especially for industries that do not comply with standards. This is in addition to the application of the Polluter Pay Principal.
It is also recommended to apply similar study by using two or three-dimensional models in order to facilitate reliable comparison with the current study. Also providing researchers with more accurate data in terms of bathymetric and water quality data will result in better simulation with more understanding for the water pollution factors. In this study, the impact of one water quality parameter each time was investigated; therefore, combination of different water quality parameters can be used in the assessment of factors affecting the water quality simulation.