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Since Canola (Brassica juncea L.) and mustard (Sinapisalba L.) seed sprouts, etiolated sprouts are fresh consumed, these sprouts were studied. In the present study, the effect of sprouting on sprout characters and the influence of TWS and SWS of canola and mustard as semi-modified diets on some biochemical parameters in normal and STZ-diabetic rats.
The following was concluded:
Adult male albino rats were allowed free access of water and fed on a uniformly basel diet until zero time. The rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. The first (G1) was normal rats. Were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (60mg/kg body weight) to induce the diabetes in rats. Five groups (G2 to G6)of rats. After one week of injection the 1st group continued feeding on the basal diet (normal control). The 2nd group was fed also on basal diet (STZ-diabetic control). The 3ed diabetic group was fed with SWS canola semi-modified diet,
4th diabetic group was fed with TWS canola semi-modified diet, 5ed diabetic group was fed with SWS mustard semi-modified diet, 6th diabetic group was fed with TWS mustard semi-modified diet.
After 6 weeks rats were weighted and anesthetized and killed by decapitation. Blood samples as well as organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas and heart), were obtained to evaluate the effect of TWS and SWS of canola and mustard on blood glucose, rat metabolism, liver and kidney functions as well as hematolgy.
The obtained results can be summarized as follows:
1. Fresh weight of canola and mustard sprout ratio about 1:6.9 and about 1:3.3 per equal fresh weight of canola and mustard seed, respectively which obtained by using jar method for 3 days old canola and 6 days old mustard sprouts, the sprout ratio increased with sprouting using alowNaCl concentration compared with using tap water for both canola and mustard.
2. The sprout average length was 4.02 cm for canola sprout and about 2.93 cm for mustard sprout using tap water for sprouting. Using Na Cl at 1000 ppm recorded the tallest canola sprout length (5.38 cm) while 2000 ppm recorded the tallest mustard sprout length (3.52 cm).
3. Canola and mustard dry weight decreased as NaClconcentrotion increased. The dry control mustard sprouts recorded the highest percentage loss in sprouts dry matter (about 25%) compared with loss in control canola sprouts dry matter (about 4.3).
4. Data in showed hyperglycemia with STZ_diabetic control and treated groups by mustard sprouts. The hyperglycemia with STZ diabetic control was observed during the whole 6 weeks (studied period) with blood glucose increment which amounted 283.4 mg/dl at last week of the experimental period.
5. Feeding diabetic rats on canola or mustard semi-modified diets for 6 weeks studied period decreased the hyperglycemia but it was more than normal state compared with normal treatments. The decreased in blood glucose levels recorded about 122.5 and 128.7 mg/dl in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with the diets containing SWS canola (NaCl 1000 ppm) and TWS canola respectively. The diabetic control significantly showed about 283.39 mg/dl at the same time.
6. Mustard sprouts semi-modified diets decreased blood glucose levels to about 180.5 and 165.2 mg/dl in both SWS mustard (NaCl 2000 ppm) and TWS mustard, respectively with non-significant with both negative or positive control.
7. 7-Data showed that STZ–induced diabetic rats fed on the normal diet had the lowest body weight (220.72g) and body weight gain (67.41g) STZ– induced diabetic rats given diet containing 10% of canola sprouts had higher body weight and BWG than rats given normal diet either for diabetic control or normal control rats fed on normal diet at the end of experiment. Data was more pronounced with rats fed on diets containing 10% TWS canola.
8- The mustard sprout from both tap water (TWS) and saline water (SWS) semi- modified diets fed STZ- diabetic rats showed re- adjustment for TG, VLDL-c levels relative to control group. Percentage of recovery in the serum level of TG or VLDL-c was about 47.7 % and 29.6 % by feeding on TWS and SWS mustard semi-modified diets, respectively in respect to diabetic control, relative liver weight showed no significant in all feed diets treatment rats. Data was more pronounced with liver, kidneys, brain and tests relative weight (g/100g body weight). On the other hand using mustard sprouts as semi-modified diets especial sprouts produced using saline water mereasedkidny and heart relative weight.
9- TWS canola semi-modified diets recover TG and VLDL-c by about 34.4% but LDL-c increased by about 143.8% in respect to diabetic control.On the other hand, SWS canola semi-modified diets showed no significant effect on TG, VLDL-c and LDL-c.
10- In STZ-induced diabetic rats (diabetic control) the activities of ALT was significantly increased by 45% while AST activity was significantly decreased by about 20%, compared to normal control. Feeding diabetic rats on SWS or TWS of canola and mustard semi-modified diets for 6 weeks experimental period caused readjustment in the activity of these enzymes.
11- On the other hand canola and mustard sprouts also decreased AST compared with negative control, while canola sprouts production with saline water increased AST compared with positive control.
12- Streptozotosin induced diabetic rats increased Alk-Ph levels by about 64%. The feeding diabetic rats with canola sprouts using saline water and mustard sprouts using both tap and saline water for 6 weeks study period caused impartments in theAlk-Phlevel to approximately around normal level.
13- The AST/ALT ratio recorded values under 5 (between 1.2 and 4.1). This proved that the diabetic harmful induced in liver but not heart (ratio more than 20).
14- Diabetic control showed no significant different in total protein while significant decreased in with percentage about 46%, compared to normal, Feeding diabetic rats on canola and mustard sprouts for 6 weeks study experimental period caused decreased in Alb even less than normal levels.
15- Serum urea levels in STZ-diabetic rats (diabetic control) was higher (about 5.6 %) compared with normal control rats. Addition of canola TWS to the diets of diabetic group decreased signifieantly the level of serum elevated urea as compared to diabetic and even normal control and the decrease reach about 44% and 47% than normal and diabietic control respectively.
16- Diapatic rats feed with mustard SWS or TWS significantly decreased WBC total counts per ul, while MCV and MCHC percentage showed no significant effects.
17- Streptozotosin -induced diabetic rats showed no clear on red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) level hematocrit percentage (PCV), and differential corpuscular hemoglobin counts (MCV, PCV and MCHC) values which statistically unchanged when compared to normal control rats.
18- Canola sprouts with fresh waterdeeneased PLT by about 21% while mustard with fresh water decreased PLT by about 26% as compared with control treestmment but all were not significant.
*from these results, it may be concluded that TWS and/or SWS of canola and mustard as semi-modified diet has the potential to alleviate hyperglycemia in cases where diabetes is present and to serve in the primary prevention of diabetes mellitus. Also TWS and SWS of canola and mustard semi-modified diet appears to be essentially; non-toxic in doses given to rats in this study over 6 weeks period.