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There is a general agreement that parental deprivation has a traumatic experience on all stages in children’s life, from newborn to adolescents. As well as those children have a high incidence of growth and developmental problems, cognitive, psychosocial, behavioral and emotional problems.
The children who are placed in orphanage, for long duration are founded to be at increased risk of developing psychiatric problems like depression, behavioral and emotional disorders even reared in well run institution.
Aim of the Study:
The aim of the study is to assess Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Institutionalized Orphans Children.
This study is based on answering the following question:
- What are the Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Institutionalized Orphans Children?
The study was conducted at Four Orphanages at Sohag & Assuit city.
Subjects of the Study:
A Convenient sample was selected for the study. The subjects of the present study included 60 orphans’ children who spent at least one year at orphanage, be 6-12 years of both gender and with not having mental retardation.
Tools of data collection:
Data were collected using the following tools:
1- Interviewing Questionnaire:
This tool was designed by the researcher based on review of related literatures. It included Socio-demographic data of orphans such as age, gender, level of education and ranking of child in family, having siblings, number of siblings, having Visits, duration of visits, persons came to visit children and degree of consanguinity of children, outside visiting, duration of visiting, data about history of child in institution, characteristics of orphanage environment, data about effect of institutionalized of child in orphanage on child achievement in school and relationship of children with teachers, employees, peers and friends in school, number of friends in school and effects knowledgeable both teachers and colleagues children are orphans and live in orphanage.
2- Children Behavioral and Emotional Disorders Scale:
It was adopted by Baza, (2010). to assess behavioral and emotional disorders, This scale included 18 items for each items consist of three statement (a, b, c) each supervisors or caregivers choose one statement descried each child responses are subsequent ” 1-5” score with ”one” representing low symptoms, ”two” representing mild symptoms, ”three” representing moderate symptoms, ”four” representing above moderate symptoms, ”five” representing sever symptoms.
3- Children Depression Inventory Scale (CDI):
It was originally prepared by Kovacs, (1984) and modified by Ghareeb Abdel-Fatta Ghareeb in (1989). It aimed to assess the degree of severity of depressive symptoms. It fits the children from age 6-18 years, and consists of 27 questions each question contain three statement, the child chooses one of them. Responses are scored on a (0-2) score with ”zero” representing the absence of a particular depressive symptoms and” one” representing the moderate form of this symptoms, while ”two” representing the severe form of symptoms, thus the degree on the score ranges from ”zero-54”.
4- Children Aggression Behavior Scale (CABS):
Adopted by Baza, (2015); to assess aggressive behavior of children. It consists of (42) statements and it measure all aspects of physical, verbal, and hostility. Each statement has four answers; the child chooses one of them, then children’s were classified into either too much (scored 4), sometimes (scored 3), rarely (scored 2), absolutely not (scored 1).
5- Perceived Stress Scale (PSS):
It was originally designed by Cohen et al., (1994), and translated to Arabic language by the researcher. It measure stress among children. This scale consists of ten questions, each question has four answers, the child chooses one of them, then children’s responses were classified into either never (scored 0), almost never (scored 1), sometimes (scored 2), fairly often (scored 3), very often (scored 4).
The pilot study was conducted on Six Orphans children from the Orphanage; those Orphans were excluded from the actual study sample.
The main findings of this study revealed that:
• An analysis of Socio-demographic characteristics showed that half of studied orphans children (50%) aged 10-12 years old, two third of studied orphans (66.7%) were female, one third of studied orphans (33.3%) were at fifth grade and nearly one third of studied orphans (30.0%) did not know their ranking. In addition, more than half of studied Orphans (51.7%) did not have siblings. Regarding outside visiting more than two third of studied orphans (66.7%) did not have visits while nearly less than one third of studied Orphans (15.0%) stayed one week outside institution.
• An analysis of history of Orphans children in hostel institutions, showed that less than two thirds of studied Orphans (61.7%) aged were less than five years at time of admission. As regards to duration of parental deprivation, more than two third of studied Orphans (68%) were six to twelve years old. Regarding, duration of stay in hostel institution one third of studied Orphans (33.3%) stayed five to less than ten years at hostel institution.
• Also more than two third of studied Orphans (70.0%) went to the orphanage by their families. As regarding causes of staying orphans in hostel institution, the most reported reason for admission hostel institution among studied Orphans were nearly less than one third of studied Orphans (30.0%) illegitimate, followed by nearly less than one quarter (23.3%) death of parents.
• An analysis of the level of behavioral and emotional disorders, aggression, depression, stress revealed that all orphans had (100.0%) a low degree of thinking disturbance and anxiety respectively. Regarding aggression, more than two third of studied Orphans (66.7%) were having physical aggression. In addition, half of studied Orphans (50.0%) were having mild depression while less than one sixth of studied Orphans (6.7%) were having severe depression symptoms. Concerning stress, two third of studied Orphans (66.7%) were having moderate stress.
• An analysis the relation between gender and behavioral and emotional disorders, showed that there was no a significant relation between the gender and children behavioral and emotional disorders (n=60, P> 0.05).
• Regarding the relation between gender and total scores of aggression showed that there was no a significant relation between the gender and aggression (n=60, P>0.05).
• Regarding the relation between gender and total score of depression showed that There was no a significant relation between the gender and depression (n=60, P>0.05)
• An analyzing the relation between gender and stress showed that there was no significant relation between the gender and stress (n=60, P>0.05)
• by analyzing the relation between children behavior and emotion disorders scale of studied orphans children and total scores of Aggression, Depression and Stress scales showed that there was a highly positive significant relation between aggression and behavior and emotion disorders (X2 =0.338, p<0.01, n=60), a highly positive significant relation between depression and behavior and emotion disorders (X2 =0.435, p<0.01, n=60) and a positive significant relation between stress and behavior and emotion disorders (X2 =0.225, p<0.01, n=60).
It is concluded: Orphans children had a low degree of behavioral disorders. Also all studied orphans suffered from low degree of anxiety and thinking disturbance. Physical aggression was the most common problems among the studied orphans. Half of them suffered from mild depression, while two third of them suffered from moderate stress. There was highly positive significant relation between behavioral disorders and school administrative, In addition, there were a positive significant relation between behavioral and emotional disorders and aggression, depression and stress.
In the light of these findings it was recommended that:
• Future research should develop and establishing official system to address the Orphans Problems in the community and enhancing Social support services.
• Increase the number of qualified supervisors and qualified psychologist in the orphanage and train them to contribute to alleviating the intensity of behavioral and emotional disorders among orphans.
• Emphasize the importance of providing suitable environment and activities in the orphanage to alleviate the intensity of behavioral and emotional disorders among orphans.
• Psychiatric surveillance for the children residing in orphanages must be available and continuous for early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders.