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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3–6% of school-aged children; it is associated with high rates of comorbidity with other disorders including motor coordination disorders.
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a common neuro motor condition, affecting about 5%–6% of school-aged children; child with DCD has motor coordination below expectations for his chronologic age which affects daily life tasks.
The frequent co-occurrence of both motor problems and ADHD has received relatively little attention in research, compared to the attention for psychiatric comorbidities like depression, autism, ODD and conduct disorder. Also in clinical practice there seems to be less attention for motor problems.
This study is designed to detect presence of DCD in children with ADHD, and to assess the relation between DCD and ADHD and its determinants.
The study was conducted on children diagnosed as ADHD who attended the unit of children with special needs in (El Agoza Rehabilitation And Physiotherapy Centre of Military Force) in a period for one year starting from September 2013 to September 2014, it was conducted on 96 child of both gender, who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, full history was taken and through clinical examination was done.
Conner’s’ rating scale-Revised: Short form (CRS-RS) for rating ADHD, Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) for assessment of IQ, socioeconomic status questionnaire for assessment of parents socioeconomic status, Developmental Coordination Disorders Questionnaire (DCDQ07) for identification of children with motor coordination problems and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M ABC 2) to determine motor abilities of children were used.
According to results children are grouped into 3 groups those who had no DCD, (scores above the 15percentile) at risk group who had mild to moderate DCD (scores lied between 6 and 15 percentile),and significant group who had significant DCD and had (scores at or below 5 percentile).
Results revealed that: 46 cases (48%) had Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD): 16 cases (16.7%) had mild to moderate DCD (at risk group), and 30 cases (31.3%) had sever impairment (significant group), while 50 child (52.0%) had no motor impairment (no DCD group).
There was a statistical significant difference (P value <0.050) between groups of DCD regarding the mean of age and gender, with a higher percentage of male than female, and younger age were more in at risk group. There was a statistical significant difference between studied groups and ADHD predominant types in favor to inattention type being more in significant group, while no statistical significant difference was found (P value >0.050) between groups and ADHD degree or history of drug.
There was a statistical significant difference (P value =0.023) between groups regarding the mean of IQ, being higher in no DCD group, and also between the studied groups and socioeconomic state where children from low socioeconomic classes being more impaired and had lower scores. There was also a statistical significant difference among the groups of the study and scores of battery components where the lowest score was for manual dexterity item.
No statistical significant difference was found (P value >0.050) between male and female motor performance with MABC2 regarding the mean of all movement assessment battery components, while Significant difference was found between the age band groups in aiming and catching percentile rank in (at risk group): where higher score was in the younger age (age band 1). Also, in static and dynamic balance percentile rank high score was in favor to the older age (age band 2), while no significant difference was found between age band groups among the significant group regarding all battery components.
Positive correlation was found (P value < 0.050) between questionnaire total score and total percentile score of the battery.
Significant results were obtained for assessment validity of the used DCDQ07 showing overall sensitivity 88% and specificity 82.6%.