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Effect of cooking and germination on chemical composition of faba bean:
The chemical composition contents, moisture content, protein, fat, ash, fiber and total carbohydrate of un- cooked Faba bean were 5.92, 23.06, 2.96, 3.47, 10.96 and 53.62% respectively. Where, the chemical composition for tested cooked Faba bean were 6.77, 21.80, 3.75, 2.35, 9.76 and 55.57%. so it was observed that, the protein content for cooked Faba bean was less than un- cooked Faba bean. Consequently, contents of moisture, fat, ash, fiber and total carbohydrate were 1.45, 5.10, 1.98, 10.12, 32.61 and 48.73% for hulls of Faba bean. However, the corresponding results for germinated Faba bean’s hulls were 3.52, 6.21, 1.10, 9.11, 34.60 and 45.45% respectively. For instance, the protein of Faba bean’s hulls was increased owing to the germination.
Effect of various processing methods on phytic acid content
Effect of soaking on phytic acid of faba bean :
Soaking of Faba bean for 12, 18 and 24hr. reduced phytic acid by 12.5, 22 and 25%.Meanwhile, the highest reduction on phytic acid (25%) was observed after soaking for 24 hr. Also, soaking the hulls of Faba bean for 12, 18 and 24 hr. reduced phytic acid content by 14.8, 24.5 and 27%, respectively.
Effect of germination on phytic acid content of faba bean :
Results indicated that, the germination achieved reduction of phytic acid content in whole Faba beans after germination for 48, 72 and 96 hr by 38, 44and 49%,respectively .Also, the reduction of phytic acid content in hulls of Faba beans after 48,72 and 96 hr. were 45,49 and 53% respectively .
Effect of roasting on phytic acid conten of faba bean
Results showed that, The roasting treatment at 200°c reduced phytic acid content by 10%, 18%, 26%, 33% after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. respectively.
Effect of cooking methods on phytic acid content of faba bean :
The highest reduction of phytic acid content was 68% after cooking for 90 min for soaked Faba bean 12hr in tap water. On the other side, the soaked Faba bean in tap water contained 1% NaHCO3 for 12 hr followed by cooking for 90 min reduced 47% of total phytic acid content. However, soaking Faba bean in tap water contained 2% NaHco3 for 12 hr. followed by cooking for 90 min. reduced 38% of total phytic acid.
chemical composition of wheat flour at various extractions :
The whole wheat flour (100%) contains moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber and total carbohydrate were 13.12, 12.51, 2.72, 2.54, 3.17, and 65.94%. while, wheat flour extraction (82%) were contained 13.65, 14.12, 2.03,1.05, 1.21 and 67.94% but corresponding values were 13.24, 13.07,1.35,0.64, 0.49, and 71.21% respectively for wheat flour (72%) extraction.
Chemical composition of fermented and non-fermented wheat bran:
Fermentation of wheat bran increased the protein content from 20.07 to 21.40% and fiber from 15.01 to 17.01% Meanwhile, the fat content was decreased from 4.25 to 3.75% in wheat bran. And a little increase in ash content from 4.82 to 4.98% was noticed .on the other hand, the fermentation of wheat bran decreased the total carbohydrate from 46.1 to 45.08%.
Effect of fermentation on phytic acid content at various extractions of wheat flour:
Fermentation of various doughs prepared from 100%, 82% and72% wheat flour extractions in the presence of 1% yeast reduced phytic acid content with different levels depending of the ratio of wheat flour extraction which were 79, 73 and 71% respectively. While, the fermentation of various tested dough with sodium bicarbonate reduced phytic acid content by 12, 10 and 9% respectively. Also, results indicated that, the highest reduction of phytic acid content was noticed for fermented dough prepared with 100% wheat flour extraction followed by 82% and 72% wheat flour extraction. Also, wheat bran recorded the highest reduction of phytic acid owing to fermentation process.
Chemical composition of Apricot kernels
Results indicated that, moisture content was increased from 7.80 to 9.78% after exposure of Apricot kernels to moist heat. But the fat content was decreased from 44.39 to 40.01%. Meanwhile, the exposing of Apricot kernels to moist heat increased both of fiber content and total carbohydrate from 4.39 to 5.30% for the former and from 26.59 to 72.69% for the latter.
Effect of various processing methods on hydrogen cyanide content of Apricot kernels:
Effect of boiling water( moist heat treatment)at different times on cyanide content of Apricot kernels:
Results showed that, the moist heat treatment was very efficient for reducing hydrogen cyanide content of Apricot kernels. It could be noticed that, the reduction percentage of hydrogen cyanide content were 48, 61, 63 and 70% after moist heat treatment for 15, 30,45 and 60 min. respectively. Where, the highest reduction of hydrogen cyanide content (70%) was achieved by moist heat for 60 min.
Effect of roasting on cyanide content of apricot kernels
A loss of hydrogen cyanide content was noticed after roasting of Apricot kernels at 200℃. however the highest reduction of hydrogen cyanide content was noticed 56, 50, 36 and 16% after 120, 90, 60 and 30 min. of roasting at 200℃ respectively.
Chemical composition of un- ripe tomato seeds
The content of unripe tomato seeds from moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber and total carbohydrate were 8.20, 25.52, 20.63, 4.75, 6.15 and 34.74% respectively. While, the corresponding values of tomato seeds treated with moist heat were 9.10, 26.81, 18.40, 3.68, 7.20, and 34.80% respectively .
Effect of boiling water (moist heat treatment) on cyanide content of unripe tomato seeds
The moist heat treatment was effective for reducing hydrogen cyanide content for un-ripe tomato seeds. Where, the reduction of hydrogen cyanide was 46, 57, 65, and 69% after moist heat for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min., respectively.
Effect of roasting on un-ripe tomato seeds
Roasting of unripe tomato seeds at 200℃ for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min reduced hydrogen cyanide content by 19, 51, 56, and 62%,respectively .therefore, the reduction of hydrogen cyanide for unripe tomato seeds was increased by increasing the time of roasting.
Chemical composition of fried potato chips with different pretreatments
The moisture content of fried potato chips (control) was 9.25% and it was ranged between 9.06 and 9.26% for all tested potato chips with various selected pretreatments .the protein content for fried potato chips with various pretreatments which were ( 2, 4% citric acid), (0.5, 1% lysine), (0.5, 1% glycine), (0.5%, 1% Cacl2), (0.5, 1% Nacl) and added (0.5, 1% rosemary extract in sun flower oil) was ranged from 9.81 to 9.83%. The fat content of potato chips with different pretreatments was in the range of 35.18 to 39.26%. However, the control contained 38.93% of fat. On the other hand, potato chips which fried in oil contained 1% rosemary extract recorded the highest oil content (39.26%). and the lowest content of oil was observed for potato chips pretreated with 1% Nacl (35.18%).
Effect of pretreatments on acrylamide formation in fried potato chips
The amounts of acrylamide content formed in fried potato chips with various pretreatments and analyzed by HPLC indicated that, the control sample contained 2200μg /kg which are in general agreement with the range of acrylamide (< 50- 3500 μg/kg) for potato chips .However, the acrylamide level in various pretreated potato chips with (2 and 4% citric acid), (0.5 and1% glycine), (0.5 and 1% lysine), (0.5 and 1% cacl2), (0.5 and 1% Nacl), potato fried in sun flower oil contained (0.5 and 1% rosemary extract) were (350, 130, 540, 300,520, 320, 410, 125, 280, 200, 460, and 230 μ/kg) respectively .it is evident that, the corresponding pretreatments of potato chips caused to reduce acrylamide formation in fried potato chips by (84, 94, 75, 86, 76, 85, 81%, 94, 87, 88, 79, and 89%) respectively comparing with control sample.
Biological assessment of acrylamide on male albino rats
Body weight gain :
Results showed that, gradual increase in body weight with advancing in the experimental period up to 6 weeks either in control rats or rats groups fed on basal diet contained various doses of acrylamide. The increasing of body weight gain was (33%) for groups drank water contained 5 mg/kg /B.W/day, (31%) for group fed on diet contained 10 mg acrylamide, (26%) for group fed on diet contained 20mg /kg/B.W/day, but the incremental of body weight gain for groups fed on diet contained 10%, 20%, 40% fried potato chips were 47, 45, 39% respectively. Also, the weight gain for rats group fed on diet contained 40% fried potato chips pretreated with 4% citric acid was (44%). However, the weight gain of rats group fed on diet contained 40% fried chips pretreated in1% Nacl as well as rats group fed on diet contained 40% potato chips fried in oil contained 1%rosemary extract was (43%).
The organs weights of male albino rats:
The organs weight of (brain, liver, kidney, bladder and testis )for 10 groups of male albino rats fed on basal diet for 6 weeks contained different doses of acrylamide ranging between 5 to 20mg /kg/B.w/day or basal diet contained fried potato chips pretreated with (4% citric acid, 1% Nacl, 1% rosemary extract in sun flower oil were decreased compared to control group. it was noticed that, the rats group fed on basal diet contained 20mg acrylamide /kg/B.w/day had the lowest weight of all organs followed by the group fed on diet contained 10mg acrylamide /kg/B.w/day followed by rats group drank water contained 5 mg acrylamide /kg/B.w/day followed by rats group fed on diet contained 40% fried chips,rats group fed on diet contained 20% fried chips,rats group fed on diet contained 10% fried chips, rats group fed on diet contained 40% potato chips fried in oil contained1% rosemary extract, rats group fed on diet contained fried chips presoaked in1% Nacl followed by the rats group fed on diet contained fried chips pretreated in 4% citric acid.
Kidney function and testosterone hormone :
There was a significant decrease for uric acid, creatinine and testosterone in all tested rats groups treated with various doses of acrylamide compared with control rats group fed on basal diet. However, the highest reduction was noticed in rats group treated with 20mg /kg/B.w/day acrylamide, followed by 10 mg acrylamide, followed by rats group drank water contained 5 mg acrylamide .
A significant decrease of GPT, GOT, and ALP was noticed as affected by treatments of rats with different levels of acrylamide .Generally, with increasing the acrylamide dose level in basal diet, the decrement in GPT, GOT and ALP activities was occurred in liver functions (as diagnostic markers).
Histopathological examination of internal organs for rats treated with acrylamide:
The highest dose of acrylamide in diet of rats group (20mg) caused sever symptoms in rat’s organs. Such as, necrosis of neurons and neurophagia of necrotic neurons of brain, kupffer cells activation, necrosis of sporadic hepatocytes and disorganization of hepatocytes of liver, atrophy of glomerular tuft and presence of eosinophilic protein cast in the lumen of renal tubules of kidney, focal necrosis of urothelium and sub mucosal infiltration with inflammatory cells of urinary bladder and multiple multi –nucleated giant cells in the lumen of seminiferous tubules .but there were no differences or little changes were observed for rats fed on potato chips pretreated with citric acid and /or fried in sun flower oil contained 1% rosemary extract .