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Hussein Fahim Mohamed Abd EL-Salam: Survey on the Quality of Bottled
Natural Drinking Water M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Food Science, Faculty of
Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2015.
The present study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and
microbiological quality of bottled drinking water (BDW) brands which available
in retail shops in Egypt comparing to those of drinking water standards. Various
physicochemical parameters [pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical
conductivity (EC), hardness, alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, calcium,
magnesium as well as fluoride] and microbiological analysis [total bacterial count
(TBC), E. coli and Pseudomonas sp.] were considered. The changes of
physicochemical and microbiological properties were recorded when the BDW was
exposured to sunlight for 20 days or when stored at different temperatures for 30
days. In another side, the study deals with the suitability of using moringa seeds
powder (MSP) as natural environmentally friend, alone and in combination with
calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 for remediation of contaminated well water.
● Electrical conductivity changes in were initiated at 15 days of exposure in all
● Similar proportionally trend was also noticed when TDS content was followed.
● Turbidity changing was started just at 5th day of direct sunlight exposure.
● The pH and alkalinity, generally showed an decremental trend during twenty days
of direct sunlight exposure started at 10th day.
● Nitrite level was clearly affected after 15 days of exposure and continuously
increased till 20 days.
● Total hardness was reached to its maximum level at 15th day of exposure.
● Similar trend was strongly correlated with those of calcium hardness and calcium
● leaching was started at 10th day of exposure with a noticeable level.
● DEHA level at 10th day was increased by (1.24-7.06) folds depending on exposure
● The aforementioned findings in case of DEHA level were similarly found in case of
● The presence of E. coli in most of investigated collected brands with slightly
increase at the end of experiment period.
● Salts and ions that playing the essential role in total hardness assured the earlier
findings of total hardness.
● E. coli was appeared when samples stored at 45°C.
● Treated water with M. oleifera seeds extract at different concentrations lead to
drastic reduction in water microbial counts. As well as, the antimicrobial activity
of M. oleifera is dependent on extract dose; i.e. the lower the concentration, the
lower the activity.
Moringa oleifera, water treatment, Bottled water, water quality, water
standards, water labeling, water storage.