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العنوان
Clinical Evaluation Of I/V Propofol Alone or In Combination With Diazepam, Ketamine Hcl And Thiopental Sodium To Induce General Anesthesia In Dogs =
المؤلف
Shaaban, Maha Mohamed Farid.
هيئة الاعداد
باحث / مها محمد فريد
مشرف / مصطفى محمد قاسم
مشرف / محمود حسين الكمار
مناقش / جمال أحمد الصياد
مناقش / سمير راشد نوح
الموضوع
Surgery.
تاريخ النشر
2018.
عدد الصفحات
164 p. :
اللغة
الإنجليزية
الدرجة
الدكتوراه
التخصص
البيطري
الناشر
تاريخ الإجازة
30/8/2018
مكان الإجازة
جامعه الاسكندريه - كلية الطب البيطرى - الجراحة
الفهرس
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Abstract

The current study aimed to evaluate the anesthetic effect of propofol , propofol-ketamine mixture ,propofol-thiopental mixture and propofol followed by diazepam intravenous injection in xylazine permedicated dogs.
Some clinico- physiological ,biochemical and hematological parameters were also recorded.
Twelve apparently healthy adult male dogs were used in the current study then randomly divided into 4 groups each group contains 3 dogs and each group received one of anasthetic protocols as follows :
Dogs in group 1 premedicated by xylazine Hcl (2%) at a dose of 1mg/kg bwt,I/M.then received propofol at a dose of 5mg/kg bwt.,i/v.
Dogs in group 2 permedicated by xylazine Hcl (2%) in a dose of 1mg/kg bwt,I/M. then received ketamine Hcl in combination with propofol in a dose of 2mg/kg bwt, i/v of each drug ,
Dogs in group 3 permedicated by xylazine Hcl (2%) then received propofol in a dose of 2mg/kg bwt,i/v followed by diazepam in a dose of 0.2mg /kg bwt, i/v .
Dogs in group 4 permedicated by xylazine Hcl (2%) in a dose of 1mg/kg bwt,I/M. then received6.5 mg/kg Thiopental (2.5%) in combination with2.5 mg/kg propofol.
6.1 Anesthetic effect:
Anaesthetic effect was evaluated via recording the onset and the duration of anesthesia by testing the absence and regaining of body reflexes ( plapepral reflex, corneal reflex, eye pupil reflex ,tongue pinch reflex , mandibular tone reflex, anal reflex, toe pinch reflex , patellar reflex, and response to pin prick test )Also the complete recovery were recorded by observing the time of first sternal recumbancy ,head lifting and standing.
There was a significant difference in onset and duration of anesthesia within the four groups. As propofol-ketamine group showed the most rapid onset of action while propofol-diazepam group had the slowest onset anesthesia and the onset of anesthesia was quicker in propofol-thiopental group than propofol group.
Regarding to anesthesia duration propofol-thiopental mixture has the longest duration while propofol –diazepam has the shortest duration, also It was observed that propofol has longer duration than propofol –ketamine mixture.
The recovery in all groups was smooth however convulsions and urination was observed in dogs received propofol with diazepam. also it was observed that dogs received propofol-thiopental has the longest recovery time while dogs in propofol –diazepam group has the shortest recovery time while there was insignificant difference between propofol and propofol-ketamine groups.
6.2.Effects on clinico-physiological parameters.
Some clinico-physiological parameters as heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were recorded 15 minutes before anesthesia induction and considerd as base line then after anesthesia induction by 15min, 45min,75min and 120 min.
A significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed in the four experimental groups.
Regarding to respiratory rate administration of propofol led to a slight decrease but return to base line. While propofol-ketamine mixture combination resulted in a significant increase in respiratory rate. Also there was a fluctuation in respiratory rate in propofol-diazepam group but still above the base line. However injection of propofol-thiopental mixture didn’t induce ay significant change in respiratory rate.
Concerning the heart rate it showed a significant increase in propofol and propofol-diazepam group, but in propofol-ketamine-group the significant increase was followed by a significant decrease and return to the its base line, while a fluctuation in heart rate was observed following propofol-thiopental mixture administration.
6.3 Effects on biochemical parameters.
Some biochemical parameters Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Gama glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, urea , creatnine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN),glucose and cholesterol levels were recorded 15 minutes before anesthesia induction and considerd as base line then after anesthesia induction by 15min, 45min,75min and 120 min.
There was non-significant change in ALT level in propofol and propofol-thiopental groups ,while in propfol-ketamine group there was a significant decrease in ALT level followed by increase and returned to its baseline at the end of experiment. However a fluctuation of ALT level was observed in propofol-diazepam group.
A significant decrease in AST level was observed in propofol and propofol-thiopental group. While there was a significant decrease in AST following propofol-ketamine mixture administration then increased and returned to base line. However a fluctuation was observed in propofol-diazepam group.
GGT level didn’t change in propofol group. While there was a significant increase in GGT level in propofol-ketamine group. on other hand in propofol- diazepam group there was a fluctuation in GGT level and returned to base line, but a significant decrease was observed in following propofol- thiopental administration .
Total protein and creatinine levels didn’t changed in the four groups throughout the experiment.
Urea level didn’t changed in propofol, propofol-diazepam and propofol-thiopental groups while a significant decrease was observed in propofol-ketamine group.
A significant decrease in BUN followed by a significant increase and come back to base line was observed in propofol and propofol- diazepam groups. while a significant decrease throughout the experiment was observed in propofol-ketamine group. also a fluctuation in BUN was observed in propofol-thiopental group.
A significant increase in glucose level was observed in the four groups.
A significant decrease was recorded in cholesterol level in propofol group while there was a significant increase in propofol-ketamine and propofol –thiopental and propofol diazepam groups.
6.4. Hematological findings:
Blood sample were collected on anticoagulant 15 minutes before anesthesia induction and considerd as base line then after anesthesia induction by 15min, 45min, 75min and 120 min for evaluation of some hematological parameters.
For example Heamoglobin ( Hb) level showed a fluctuation in propofol ,propofol –diazepam and propofol-thiopental groups but still under the base line while a significant decrease was observed after administration of propofol-ketamine mixture.
Concerning RBCs count there was a significant decrease in RBCs count in propofol, propofol-ketamine and propofol diazepam group. While after propofol –thiopental mixture injection non- significant difference observed.
Also, Non-significant difference was observed in PCV observed at four groups although a significant decrease observed in propofol-thiopental group but return to its base line.
A fluctuation in platelets and WBCs count was observed in the four groups.